Sheet metal


Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used in metalworking and it can be cut and bent into a variety of shapes. Thicknesses can vary significantly; extremely thin thicknesses are considered foil or leaf, and pieces thicker than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate.

Sheet metal is often used in

  1. automobile and truck (lorry) bodies
  2. airplane fuselages and wings
  3. medical tables
  4. roofs for buildings (architecture) etc 

vent silencer


High pressure fluids when released to the atmosphere, generates high noise level. This is due to high velocity flow through the valve and turbulence created around any obstacle that suddenly restricts or change the flow directions. The noise is dangerous to the health and safety of plant’s personnel and also environmentally unacceptable. For this purpose, vent silencer are used to reduce the noise level.

Typical applications of Vent Silencers are in:

  • Oil & gas processing
  • Industrial processing
  •  Chemical processing
  •  Safety relief valve system
  •  Air compressor vents 


CrushedImpact is one of the very important subjects which always have been considered in mechanical science. Control on an impact is not a plausible solution.  It is often required to present the transfer of impact to other vulnerable part of a structure.  When it is necessary, one of the best methods of absorbing energy of impact is by using Thin-walled tubes.  These tubes collapses under impact and with absorption of energy, it prevents the damage to other parts.

Two analysis fields in which highly nonlinear conditions are simulated are the crash and crush analyses of the models.

In a crash analysis, the crashing of a moving object at about 30 mph into a rigid wall is simulated using Explicit Dynamics Module. The codes have been developed based on explicit time integration, special shell elements for this specific analysis, and modeling assumptions regarding the dynamic behavior involved.

In a crush analysis, a quite different physical phenomenon is considered. Here the purpose is to establish the ultimate strength of the body in a static situation.

The Objective of the present Study is to analyze the crushing behavior of a cylindrical tube under compressive loading.


Scissor Lift 1


The scissors lift is an elevator with a system of levers and hydraulic cylinders on which the metal platform is capable of moving in the vertical plane. This is achieved by using linked, folding supports in a criss-cross “X” pattern, called scissor mechanism.

The need for the utilization of elevators is incredibly wide and it runs across workshops, factories, labs, fixing of billboards, residential/commercial buildings to repair street lights, etc. 


CFD analysis of Butterfly Valve With Without Spring ForceA rigid body is a solid object that moves through a fluid without deforming. Its motion is dictated by the fluid forces and torques acting upon it, plus any external forces (such as gravity) and external torques. Within ANSYS CFX, a rigid body can be modeled in two ways:

  1. A rigid body can be defined by a collection of 2D regions that form its faces. When a rigid body is modeled in this way, the rigid body itself does not need to be meshed. Mesh motion is used to move the mesh on the rigid body faces in accordance with the solution of the rigid body equations of motion.
  2. Alternatively, an immersed solid can be defined as a rigid body. In this case the motion of the immersed solid is dictated by the solution of the rigid body equations of motion.



The movement of liquid cargo within a partially filled tank from one side of the tank to the other in the form of wave when being transported is referred to as “Tank Sloshing.” Severe effects of sloshing are caused by sudden changes - such as braking and cornering.






Three ways of applying force to enable crackThe historical development of the present knowledge on fatigue crack initiation and Fatigue crack growth is marked by a number of characteristic observation and analytical concepts.  Among them, the application of the stress intensity factor K to fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading and to fracture toughness Kic is well established by now.


Numerical Simulation of Flow Ower Flat Sloped Stepped Spillway

spillway is a structure used to provide the controlled release of flows from a dam or levee into a downstream area, typically the riverbed of the dammed river itself. In the UK they may be known as overflow channels. Spillways ensure that the water does not overflow and damage or destroy the dam.

Floodgates and fuse plugs may be designed into spillways to regulate water flow and reservoir level. Such a spillway can be used to regulate downstream flows – by releasing water in small amounts before the reservoir is full, operators can prevent sudden large releases that would happen if the dam were overtopped.

Other uses of the term "spillway" include bypasses of dams or outlets of channels used during high water, and outlet channels carved through natural dams such as moraines.



Simulation Of Turbulent Flows Through a Solar Air HeaterConventional solar air heaters have poor thermal efficiency due to low-convective heat transfer coefficient between absorber plate and flowing air stream. It can be increased by increasing the level of turbulence by breaking laminar viscous sublayer. For this purpose artificial roughness are applied on the surface of absorber plate to enhance heat transfer by passive technique.

The enhancement in heat transfer accompanies higher pressure drop of the fluid flow. In order to keep friction losses at a low level, the turbulence must be created in the region close to the duct surface, that is, in the laminar sublayer.

Shell and Tube Heat ExchangerIntroduction:

Heat exchangers are one of the mostly used equipment in the process industries. Heat exchangers are used to transfer heat between two process streams. One can realize their usage that any process which involves cooling, heating, condensation, boiling or evaporation will require a heat exchanger for these purposes. Process fluids, usually are heated or cooled before the process or undergo a phase change. Different heat exchangers are named according to their applications.

Geometry solid bodyNatural Convection is a heat transfer mode in which fluid motion is not generated by any external source ( like a pump or fan ) but only because of density difference caused by temperature gradient. The fluid surrounding the heating source receives heats, becomes less dense and thus rises. The surrounding cooler fluid then moves to replace it and the process continues to create a convection current. The driving force for natural convection is buoyancy, a result of fluid density difference.

Solar air heaterEnergy is a crucial input in the process of economic, social and industrial development of any nation. During past several decades, energy demand of the world has been increasing continuously at an alarming rate due to increase in population, industrialization, transportation etc. Continuous use of fossil fuels have resulted energy crisis and environment degradation at global level. On the many alternatives, solar energy is an important renewable energy resource that has the potential of fulfilling all energy needs.


Simulation of a Tank fill by Volume of Fluid Method Using Ansys FluentVOF model is used to model immiscible fluids with clearly defined interface. Numerical study of multiphase fluid flows require mathematical methods for distinguishing interface between two fluids. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is one of such method which takes care of fluid shape in a local domain and reconstructs the interface from volume fraction of one fluid.

It is a surface-tracking technique applied to a fixed Eulerian mesh where Navier Stokes equations which describe the motion of the flow have to be solved separately. The method is based on the solution of a transport equation for variable ‘C’ (often also referred as indicator or colour function) for the liquid phase.