INTRODUCTION to Radiator Cooling

In recent years, experimental as well numerical studies has proven that nano-fluid ( nanometer-sized metallic particles suspended in based-fluid ) has higher heat transfer capability as compared to conventional fluids. One of its important application can be as coolant in automotive engines.The higher heat transfer capability of nano-fluid as coolant will help in reducing the size of the radiator in automobiles worldwide.In this case study, enhancement in heat transfer in single flat tube of automobile radiator using nano-fluid (Al2O3/Water) at different concentrations (0-1%) of nano-particle and at different Reynolds's number (Re 9500-23000) is investigated numerically. To simulate nano-particles (Al2O3) in base fluid (Water), single phase approach as well as two-phase approach was used. In single-phase approach, correlations were used to calculate the effective properties of the nano-fluid where as in two-phase approach mixture model ( based on Eulerian-Eulerian approach) was used.At the end of this study, it was found that heat transfer increases with increase in concentration of nano-particle as well as Reynolds number. The heat transfer enhancement predicted by two-phase model is higher as compared to single-phase model. It was also found that, for a given heat transfer rate, the volumetric flow rate required by nano-fluid was less than that of pure base fluid at lower pumping rate.


Heat Transfer Enhancement


Single flat tube


Dimension of flat tube


Meshing Boundary Conditions


Low High Volumetric


Fluid Properties


CFD Result


Nano Particles


Average Heat Transfer


Single Two Phase Model


Nano Particles Concentration






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